This glossary includes descriptions for terms used in this FS One User Manual and also definitions for parameters used in the airplane editor.
35.1. Terms Used with FS One#
3D Flying Site
Camera view from the direction of the air flowing past the aircraft. See Camera Views.
Automatically zooms the camera view of the aircraft. See Camera Views.
Flying game where you drop bombs and shoot bottle rockets from your aircraft. See Bomb Drop.
Calibrating is the process of moving your joystick inputs each to their maximum extents so that FS One can “learn” the high/low limits of your controller axes and also determine the center position of your joysticks and switches that have a center position. Taking this set, prepares your transmitter/controller for flight. For more, see the section Getting Started: Part II.
Moving camera view from near the aircraft. See Camera Views.
Flying into the ground, trees, buildings, etc. See Options | Physics.
Computer Radio, Software Radio
Options settings that allow your aircraft to break apart (or not) when crashed. See Options | General.
A recorded flight for the aircraft. The recorded flight is literally a “data file”. In the context of aerotowing, the Data File icon (see below) is used for the transmitter to indicate that a recording will be use for that transmitter for the current Pilot.
Datum, Aircraft Datum
A reference point on the airplane and usually very close if not on the center of gravity of the stock airplane. The datum is the location of the aircraft body axis, i.e. X = 0, Y = 0 and Z = 0. For instance, the coordinates for the center of gravity are referenced to the datum. Also, coordinates for the body-axis camera locations (
F8cameras) are also referenced to the datum. If fact, all aircraft physical location data is referenced relative to the aircraft datum.
Combustion byproducts exhausted from a muffler. See Options | Smoke/Exhaust.
Window for entering numeric or Boolean-valued logic expressions. Used with the transmitter editor. See Expression Editor.
Explanations of how the transmitter controls each aircraft in FS One. See Flight Manual.
A Flight Mode is a set of mixes, expos, etc for the selected aircraft. The Flight Mode settings are stored in the computer memory of the transmitter. Such transmitters are called computer radios or less commonly “software radios”. All aircraft in FS One take advantage of “computer radio” setups, i.e. use user selectable Flight Modes when flying. A single aircraft can have many different selectable Flight Modes (3 is typical) or only one (which is uncommon). Each Flight Mode is given a unique name. For examples for airplanes, some names commonly used are: “Low Rates” (low max/min control surface deflections) , “Snap Mode” “3D Rates”, “High Rates” (high max/min control surface deflections). These Flight Modes fundamentally define the max/min amount of deflections for full stick throws and can add effects that improved the handling qualities, i.e. give a better “control feel” depending on the desired flying style/condition. For instance, it may be useful to define different Flight Modes for, say, landing vs aerobatic flight. To change the Flight Mode while flying, you move switches on the transmitter (or use keyboard inputs) as described in the Flight Manual for the given airplane.
Flight Training in FS One uses prerecorded flights to teach you how to fly. The recordings include transmitter stick movements and expert instruction (narration). See Flight Training.
A window that lets you make selections for your flight: airplane, flying site (3D, pano), wind, etc., e.g. see the Single Pilot Freestyle Fly Screen. From any Fly Screen, start the flight by clicking on the Fly button.
When you are flying in FS One. Click Fly from a Fly Screen to start a Flight Session.
FS One USB Interface
FS One branded USB interfaces that can be used as one method for connecting your transmitter/controller to your PC through a USB port on your computer. For more, see: FS One V1 and V2 USB Interfaces.
Launch by throwing - javelin style. See Takeoff Options.
Heads Up Display
Visual overlay indicating many flight parameters such as angle of attack, airspeed, and rate of climb and navigation data, e.g. heading. Called a “HUD” for short. Press
Hto see cycle through the different HUD displays during a flight session.
A towline made up of a length of surgical tubing attached to a length of string for launching aircraft, e.g. typically sailplanes. The surgical tubing end is staked to the ground. The tow ring at the end of the string attaches to a towhook on the aircraft. The line is stretched and then released to launch the aircraft. The tension in the line can be high - as much as someone could hold while still standing. The tension can be even higher in simulation, i.e. in FS One. See Takeoff Options.
An Options setting that stops your aircraft from breaking apart when crashed.
Picture-within-picture view. Press
I. See Camera Views.
See USB Interface.
Altitude above which air density is artificially set to zero (game for fun). See Options | Physics.
Keymap Commands, Keymap Graphics, Keymap Table
Keyboard commands that add additional control during a flight session. See the chapter on Keymap Commands.
The camera view is lagged to simulation looking at your airplane through an actual handheld camera. See Camera Views.
Prerecorded flights to teach flying techniques. The recordings include transmitter-stick movements and expert narration. See Flight Training.
Load a previously saved flight configuration. See Load Flight.
Log Book, Logbook
How many hours you have flown each aircraft. See Log Book.
The main screen that you see when you start FS One®. See Main Menu.
A map widget that shows your aircraft, the runway, etc during a flight session. Press
M. See Map Overlay.
An component of a computer radio Flight Mode that makes a transmitter input (say, aileron) control more than one servo (say, aileron and rudder, i.e. aileron-rudder mix).
Camera view from various parts of the aircraft itself. Press
F8. See Camera Views.
Camera view of your aircraft that also keeps something else (another aircraft) on-screen. Press
F9. See Camera Views.
Pano Flying Site
Keeps the camera centered on-screen. See Camera Views.
Camera view that you see by pressing
F1. See Camera Views.
Record flight and later playback your Recording(s). See Recordings.
Reset your aircraft to the start location. Press
Spacebarto Reset-to-Home to the home position. See Resetting. The name ResetPlus comes from the TacCon controller that labels the Reset-To-Home button as ResetPlus.
Rockets, Bottle Rockets
Launched from an aircraft playing the Bomb Drop game. The rockets are styled like bottle rockets.
Save a flight configuration from a Fly Screen. See Save Flight.
A method in FS One for scaling up or down a stock airplane. The Scaling Wizard™ is part of the airplane editor screen. See Scaling Wizard for more.
Camera view that you see by pressing
F2. See Camera Views.
The servo that moves airplane controls/surfaces. See Servos.
A widget that makes a spherical grid of lines on the sky. Press
G. See Sky Grid.
Keeps the horizon visible longer than a normal pilot camera view. See Camera Views.
Airshow smoke. Press
S. See Options | Smoke/Exhaust.
Splits your screen while flying into two selections for flying with two aircraft. Settings for horizontal or vertical split in Options | Video. Settings for actually using a split screen are displayed on these Fly Screens:
Panoramic photo-realistic skyscape to use with 3D flying sites. These skyscapes in FS One cover the range from bright sunny days to cloudy, and many inbetween. See Sun/Sky.
FS One Version 1 controller. To work with the current version of FS One, it requires the original version 1 USB interface or version 2 USB interface. It is powered by the USB interface, using USB port power. See more about FS One V1 and V2 USB Interfaces.
An airplane that tows a sailplane aloft on a towline. See Single Pilot Towplane/Sailplane.
An RC transmitter. However, generically speaking a transmitter working with FS One functions as a USB controller. FS One requires a controller that is seen as joystick game device on a PC. Other kinds USB controllers that are compatible with FS One include, gamepads, the TacCon controller , or any USB game controller. For more, see: Select Your Controller.
The terms transmitter and controller used in FS One are synonymous in the context of controller your airplane in FS One.
Records and plays back transmitter stick inputs. The method also saves the starting point which it used during playback. See Transmitter Overdrive.
A USB Interface is the electronic device that connects your transmitter/controller to your PC. Thus, the USB Interface is literally the interface between your controller and your computer, and it hooks up through a USB port, hence the name. On your computer, this USB Interface appears as (reports as) a joystick device on your PC. The simulator “looks at” the joystick device to “see” your stick inputs when flying on the PC. The physical USB Interface can take many forms: wired, wireless, internal to the transmitter, or a device that connects a PC to an RC receiver, which would be “wireless” in the sense that your stick inputs are sent “wirelessly” to the receiver which itself is then wired to your computer. See more.
Used for winch launching a sailplane. The winch spool that reels in the line on launch is actuated using the
`key, which simulates a winch on/off footpedal. See Takeoff Options.
Wind in FS generically means: steady, gusty, with thermals, with shear for dynamic soaring, or even calm winds. See Wind.
35.2. Parameters Used in the Airplane Editor#
The following terms are used with the airplane editor. The definitions are the same as those seen when running FS One (when editing an airplane).
Elevator trim offset angle (deg). Trims for level flight. Positive values trim nose down.
Offset for elevator deflection read from the transmitter. Effectively a transmitter preset, to trim the airplane with no transmitter elevator stick or trim.
Stiffens yaw and pitch during hover. Normally 1; 0.95 to 1.05 is reasonable.
Most noticeable in hover. Most pilots will notice a 5% change compared to the default for a given airplane.
Scales the fuselage side force in yaw, and lift force in pitch. Normally 1; 0.95 to 1.05 is reasonable.
Artificially stabilizes 3D aerobatic airplanes when using the Hovering Training Assistant. Normally 1 (no assistance); up to 10 is reasonable for training. Note: The parameters mTailSurfs*, mTailHori*, mTailVert*, mWing* here are multipliers for tail surfaces, horizontal tail surfaces, vertical tail surfaces, and wings respectively.
Values greater than 1 artificially modify the aerodynamics. These “mHover” parameters generally relate to propeller aerodynamics, so they affect all flight regimes, not just hovering.
Stiffens hovering. Normally 1; 1 to 1.03 is reasonable.
Decreases stiffness (damping) in hovering. Normally 1; 0.9 to 1 is reasonable.
Normally 1; less than 1 is reasonable.
Increases the yaw/pitch angle over which hover is damped. Normally 1; up to 2 is reasonable.
Scales a reference speed related to hover damping. Higher values increase damping. Normally 1; 0.8 to 1.2 is reasonable.
Propwash speed multiplier at low speeds and at normal cruise speeds. Normally 1; 0.9 to 1.1 is reasonable. Note: The parameters mTailSurfs*, mTailHori*, mTailVert*, mWing* here are multipliers for tail surfaces, horizontal tail surfaces, vertical tail surfaces, and wings respectively.
The range from 0.9 to 1.1 applies to a conventional propeller size relative to the tail size and location. Smaller propellers affect the tail less. For instance, a propeller with diameter only 10% of the horizontal tail span might have a multiplier as small as 0.1. Also, a larger airplane flying at a higher Reynolds number has thinner boundary layers and thus effectively more dynamic pressure on the tail. Its multiplier could be as large as 1.2.
Scales the expansion angle of the propeller slipstream at low and high speeds, e.g. in hover and in level cruise. Normally 1; 0.95 to 1.05 is reasonable.
Scales drag at angles of attack beyond stall. Normally 1; 0.95 to 1.05 is reasonable.
Increments parasitic drag. No standard value. Near zero for sailplanes, 0.025 to 0.035 for draggy biplanes.
Increments excrescence drag (from wings, tail, landing gear, wetted area of the fuselage, etc.). For small models this value may be as large as 0.02 to account for separated flow at low Reynolds numbers. When scaled up to near full size, this increment in CDo might approach zero, i.e. all appropriate drags will have already been accounted for in the baseline aerodynamics model.
Increments lift-dependent parasitic drag (grows with CL*CL). No standard value.
Baseline models already account for the CDK drag term. But when scaled up or down, this CDK term needs to be decreased or increased respectively. Normally positive.
Changes wing flex.
Set to 1 to allow 100% throttle.
Maximum rudder deflection in degrees. Normally positive.
Maximum rudder deflection in degrees for right and left vertical fin. Normally positive.
Maximum elevator deflection in degrees. Normally negative.
Maximum elevator deflection in degrees for right and left horizontal tail. Normally negative.
Maximum aileron deflection in degrees. Normally positive.
Maximum aileron deflection in degrees for right and left wing. Normally positive.
Maximum aileron deflection in degrees for top right, top left, bottom right, and bottom left biplane wing. Normally positive.
Maximum flap deflection in degrees for right and left wing. Normally positive.
Maximum spoiler deflection in degrees for right and left wing. Normally positive.
Maximum airbrake deflection in degrees for right and left airbrake. Normally positive.
Maximum nose gear deflection in degrees. Normally positive.
Maximum main gear deflection in degrees for right and left landing gear. Normally positive.
Maximum and minimum deflections physically allowable in degrees. Values are for informational purposes only and should not be changed.
Update increment for super-trim message display with continuous key press. A smaller value increases the message rate.
Update silent-time count that begins after releasing super-trim key increments. A smaller value shortens the silent period. Typically equals mSuperTrimMessageIncrement.
Deflection increment with super-trim key press.
Offset for super trim. Effectively a super-trim preset.
Location of the thrust (either propeller or jet).
X is positive out the nose.
Y is positive out the right wing.
Z is positive down.
X, Y, and Z are relative to the aircraft datum.
Scales engine torque. Normally 1.
When 1, engine has thrust. When 0, it does not.
When 0, the engine still responds to throttle commands and the airframe still reacts to propwash.
When 1, engine has torque.
When 1, engine has gyroscopic effects.
Motor down and right thrust. If the engine is installed with down or right thrust, the value should be positive.
Scales the propeller normal force. Normally 1.
Scales the propeller P-factor. Normally 1.
Experimental. Should be 1.
Experiemental. Should be 0.
When 1, aerodynamic loads can break off pieces if the loads exceed the following limits.
There are two ways to specify the breakage loads: (1) by specifying the *.mMaxLoad_Lbs values below, or (2) by specifying a g-limit for each part. By default, all airplanes break based on the g-limits. This can be changed by setting the “mComputeAeroPartMaxLoadFromMaxGs_enabled = 0” below, in which case the *.mMaxLoad_Lbs values are used. The max load default settings are set to a large number (999999). Example: To break the right wing off when it reaches a load of 20 lb, then set “mWingR.mMaxLoad_Lbs = 20,” and so on. Most conventional model airplanes can sustain 10 G’s or much more. For this 10-g limit case, if the airplane weighs 2 lb, then it can sustain 20 lb in flight. This means that each wing will support 10 lb of load before breaking, i.e. mWingR.mMaxLoad_Lbs should be set to 10 lb and mWingL.mMaxLoad_Lbs should be set to 10 lb. (The breakage tests are based on these max loads as described and not the max bending moments.) Alternatively, the g-limit can be given for the *.mMaxGLoad values discussed below.
Aerodynamic surface breakage thresholds. If aerodynamic loads on the surface exceed this value, the surface will break off from the airplane.
Short duration before turning on aerodynamics loads after resetting from a crash which broke off parts. Do not change.
When 1, ignore the *.mMaxLoad_Lbs values, and instead compute the maximum loads based in a g-spec and the aircraft weight.
Makes maximum load proportional to the specified “MaxGLoad” multiplied by the “MaxGLoadFac.” For the main wings, this latter factor should be one, but for the tail which can usually sustain a higher g-load, this factor is higher and has been set to 1.5 for all airplanes. The maximum load per part is approximately area weighted.
Maximum g-load used in computing the maximum force that the part can sustain before breaking off.
Scaling: When an airplane is scaled using the Scaling Wizard, the breakage loads are scaled as well. For instance, a small model airplane might be able to sustain 30 G’s, but when scaled up to a very large size, a max g-limit of 7 to 9 might be more reasonable based on realistic material properties. This scaling is determined by the code when the airplane is scaled up or down from the baseline. If the airplane is not scaled, then the values given by this parameter (*.mMaxGLoad) are those used.
Scale factor on the maximum g-load given by *.mMaxGLoad.
A lower limit constraint for the maximum g-load when the airplane is scaled.
The Scaling Wizard also scales breakage loads. When scaling up, the g-load is reduced. Realistic airplanes of any size have a lower g-limit, often 7 o 9 G’s, enforced by this parameter.
Tuning parameter used to make the airplane break nominally at the G’s specified by the *.mMaxGLoad values. Typical range is 1 to 1.2. Default value is 1.
Adds noise to the breakage loads to model randomness. 0.10 is typical.
Increments noise of breakage loads. 0.05 is typical.
Propeller diameter (ft).
Propeller chord at 75% radius location (ft).
Average drag coefficient for the propeller.
Scales the propeller rotational inertia.
Propeller weight (lb)
Scales the propeller thrust coefficient.
Scales the propeller torque coefficient.
Pitch offset to the variable-pitch/constant-speed propeller pitch schedule table for “Prop_ConstSpeed8658-3blade/v2” propellers.
With the first release of FS One, only one propeller data set includes the effects of variable pitch. These files have been created to simulate the variable-pitch/constant-speed propeller operation sometimes used on full scale airplanes. The airplanes that use this variable related features/files are the full scale renditions of the Ultimate TOC (Ultimate 10-300), Edge 540 and Funtana 90 (Katana). This variable pitch feature does not take into account the “VPP” aerodynamics of some model airplanes.
Lag time constant factor on the blade pitch change system for variable-pitch/constant-speed propellers.
Do not change. See Motor/Engine in the airplane editor.
Scales the motor power.
Scales the motor power at idle.
Scales the time lag of the power response to throttle commands.
Scales the time lag of the thrust response.
Scales the maximum time lag of the thrust response.
Scales the motor starting torque.
Scales the motor friction torque.
Scales the motor friction torque when starting.
Scales the motor friction torque when running.
Scales the motor compression kill torque of the motor.
Maximum G’s that the turbojet engine can withstand before breaking.
Scales the time lag of the turbojet thrust response.
Scales the turbojet thrust.
Scales the turbojet compression speed.
Scales the turbojet fuel flow.
Scales the turbojet thrust lapse rate with altitude.